Over thousands of years, humans have refined and perfected the methods to cultivate, harvest and process hemp, to obtain fibre for making garments and much more. Today, we have countless types and blends of textiles available to us, to suit all requirements and applications. But how is hemp fibre obtained and processed?
Fibre hemp is produced from low-cannabinoid varieties of Cannabis sativa L. that are planted close together to minimise branching and encourage tall, straight central stems. Unlike most psychoactive strains of cannabis, fibre varieties typically have hollow stalks, which contain far higher amounts of fibre (35% compared to 15%).
In the northern hemisphere, fibre hemp seed is planted when the ground temperature rises above 7.5°C, and is typically harvested around August, once the pollen begins to be shed. Hemp can flourish in conditions considered less than optimum, and will usually produce more than competitor crops in such instances.
However, for optimum harvests, hemp should be cultivated in mild, humid conditions, in well-drained, non-acidic soil that is high in nitrogen. Soil must be moist but not excessively so, as overly-moist soil has been shown to produce weak fibres. Cool summers are also said to assist the fibre in becoming fine and strong.
Harvesting & separating the hemp fibres
If cultivating solely for fibre, males and females are both cut down as soon as the males begin to exude pollen. If cultivating for fibre and seed, the males are allowed to pollinate the females before being cut. At this point, the females are left to mature until the seeds are ripe. Only after this are the female plants cut and the fibre and seed separated.
Interestingly, traditional farmers of hemp in the UK held that male hemp plants produce fibre much finer and silkier than that produced by the females. This was borne by a 1996 study conducted in Hungary, which concluded that male fibre was finer but female fibre slightly stronger.
Retting of hemp fibre
Once the plants have been cut, the stems are usually laid out along the ground for several weeks so that retting can occur. This is a process of decay whereby the pectin (the gel-like polysaccharide present in most plant cell walls) that binds the fibres together decomposes on exposure to light and air, and the long bast fibres are exposed. Bast fibres are those that occupy the phloem or inner bark of dicotyledonous plants such as hemp and flax.
Retting may also be done in water tanks, which speeds up the process, or in frost and snow, which is said to produce a whiter, finer fibre. Now, there are also chemical and enzymatic means with which to speed up the process of retting.
Decorticating hemp fibre
Decortication is the removal of the central woody core from the stem. This step can be performed immediately after retting, while the stems are still wet. In this case, the damp fibres are peeled off the core and then dried. Alternatively, the stems can be dried and then processed with specialised machinery, which breaks up the woody core and separates it from the fibres.
Modern decorticators often negate the need for long retting periods and separate decortication processes, instead combining the processes into one and producing ready-to-bale fibre within a few minutes of cutting the plant.
Treating the hemp fibres
Once the fibres have been separated, they are formed into bales and removed from the field to be processed into yarn. Often, the fibre is spun without further processing. However, some producers have developed chemical or mechanical processes that increase the softness or elasticity of the fibres.
For example, one involved process necessitates soaking the fibres in a near-boiling solution of soap and carbonate of soda, before being washed with water and soaked in dilute acetic acid. The fibres are washed in pure water once more, then dried and combed to produce an end result of exceptional softness and fineness.
Removing lignin from hemp fibre
Lignin is a hard, woody biopolymer that makes up 8-10% of the dry weight of hemp fibre. It is responsible for the rough, scratchy feel of traditional hemp fibre. If the lignin is removed, the resulting fibre is much smoother and softer. The inability to remove lignin from hemp without reducing its strength led to other crops being favoured over it—yet another reason that its use began to decline so dramatically in the post-industrial period.
In the mid-1980s, researchers developed a new technique to remove the lignin through enzymatic & microbial means. The protein-digesting enzyme protease is first applied to the hemp fibre, which reduces the nitrogen in the stems. Then, a species of fungus known as Bjerkandera is allowed to grow upon the fibres, where it consumes the lignin. The fibres produced with this technique were far more versatile, and hemp began to be used in garment-making once more.
Spinning hemp fibre into yarn
Hemp yarn is spun similarly to other natural fibres; typically, the fibres are twisted together to form long, continuous threads, which are often sealed with wax or a similar agent to render the end result waterproof or more durable.
It is usually at this stage of the process that other fibres are added to the blend: rather than blended cloth being woven from threads made purely from one type of fibre, the thread itself is a blend of fibres that influence its final characteristics. However, this is not always the case. Fustian, for example, traditionally referred to a textile made from a flax warp (lengthwise thread) interwoven with a cotton weft (transverse thread).
The hand-spinning process
This process was traditionally performed by hand, with the help of nothing more than two simple tools, the drop spindle and the distaff. The drop spindle is a spike-shaped weight to which the raw fibre is attached, and the distaff is a wooden stick around which the lengths of raw fibre are looped.
The hand-spinner sets the spindle spinning, and slowly releases raw fibre from the distaff; the spinning motion and the pull of the weight as it slowly drops cause the fibres to be tightly wound into threads. Some hobbyists and specialist producers still spin by hand using these traditional tools.
When hand-spinning with hemp fibres, the best choice of spindle is a lightweight top whorl, a type that can spin very fast and produce a fine, smooth yarn. Most hemp yarn is dry-spun, but can be spun ‘wet’: the spinner merely moistens the fingers with water and strokes the yarn as it spins, smoothing down the flyaway fibres to produce the smoothest possible result.
Although hemp now has to compete with an array of alternative fibres, both natural and synthetic, improved processing techniques have uncovered ground-breaking new uses for hemp textiles. As well this, the need to find textile crops of low environmental impact is increasing rapidly. For these reasons, hemp is growing in significance once more after a long period of decline, although it may never regain its former status as the number one textile crop.
Hemp textiles produced with hemp fibre
It has always been possible to make a variety of high-quality, durable fabrics from hemp, either alone or in combination with other natural fibres such as flax or silk. Although the traditional image of hemp fabric is of rough, scratchy burlap and canvas, the variety of delicate textiles that can be produced from it is remarkable.
- Linen: Linen is a good example of a lightweight textile that can be made from pure hemp. When linen is manufactured from hemp, the result is lightweight, durable and breathable – excellent in hot, humid conditions!
- Terrycloth: Hemp is also widely used to make terrycloth, the tufted material that may be either woven or knitted and is primarily used for towelling. Due to hemp’s remarkable absorptive properties, it is considered very suitable for this application.
- Twill: Hemp fibres are also very suitable for various types of twill, including denim, herringbone, and flannel, and for several types of knitted textile including jersey and velour
- Hemp silk charmeuse: When used in combination with silk, hemp can be used to make taffeta, a stiff, shiny fabric used in ball-gowns and wedding dresses. It can also be used to create charmeuse, a lustrous satin used to make figure-draping lingerie and flowing evening dresses. Even complex Jacquard-woven fabrics, in which a raised pattern is woven into the cloth, can be made with blended hemp and silk.
- Hemp cotton diapers: Hemp is often blended with cotton to make cloth diapers (nappies). It is thought to have superior absorption and durability than cotton, which is usually added to increase the softness of the fabric. Hemp also has antibacterial and antimicrobial properties, which may help to prevent nappy rash and related skin conditions.
- Hemp cotton muslin: Hemp is also blended with cotton to make fine muslin or cheesecloth, some of which can be exceptionally light and strong with excellent absorptive properties. As well as this, most knitted fabrics made with hemp are blended with cotton to improve softness.
Hemp textile is durable, versatile and fast-growing, making it a great competitor for other natural fibre plants. Most of all, it is a sustainable material to use. In a time where the world is desperately seeking sustainable alternatives, hemp textiles propose a valid and exciting opportunity.
Hemp in the mainstream fashion industry
The fashion house Ralph Lauren has used hemp-silk charmeuse produced by EnviroTextiles extensively in their garment making. Ralph Lauren has produced evening dresses and even a military-style jacket using this textile. Ralph Lauren has used several different hemp blends in recent collections too: hemp, acrylic and cotton to make jerseys, hoodies and sweatshirts; hemp and cotton to make shorts, shirts and trousers, and linen, cotton and hemp for curtains, bedclothes and upholstery.
The fact that hemp has become a mainstream fashion item is borne out by the dozens of hemp-based garments now available in high street stores such as H&M, as well as by the proliferation of high-end designer pieces, such as an Hermès cashmere, silk and hemp scarf.
As well as Ralph Lauren, EnviroTextiles fabrics have also been used by Donatella Versace, Behnaz Sarafpour, Donna Karan International, Isabel Toledo and Doo.Ri; the New York Fashion Week 2008 was a landmark year, in which many of these designers showcased their new hemp designs for the first time.
Hemp textile companies to watch
As well as EnviroTextiles, there are various other companies producing high-quality hemp fabrics: Hoodlamb, Datsusara, Patagonia, Clothing Matters, Hempy’s, Livity Outernational, Satori Movement, and, Dash Hemp, to name but a few.
Of course, fabric is just one of the few items that can be made from hemp; advances in composite plastics, building materials, foodstuffs and healthcare products are being made daily. It’s exciting to be part of an industry that has such a huge potential to make the world a little bit more eco-friendly. The applications of hemp are as versatile as sustainable.
36 thoughts on “Hemp Fabrics 101 & How Hemp Textiles Are Made”
Sir my question is how can I make hemp plastic products how to make those hemp plastic bags? I want to do something with this plant and hemp plastic products is a good opportunity
Good morning Shanuj,
Thanks for your question.
Unfortunately, Industrial hemp is not our area of expertise.
For this kind of enquiry, we recommend you contact the European Industrial Hemp Association.
This article on Hemp Plastic: What Is It and How is it Made? may be of interest to you.
Other readers are also sharing their opinions on this topic.
Thanks again, and I hope you continue to enjoy the blog.
Have a great day!
Many people like hemp clothes. Hemp fiber is lightweight, absorbent, and too many strong tensile strength of cotton.
Could you propose any company’s (manufacturers but not resellers) in Europe, which made 100 % hemp textile from hemp fiber. I want to buy hemp textile (as fabric) and to make some home products from it.
Most of companies I found, can propose finished products, such us T-shirts, etc. But I don’t need products, I need hemp fabric.
Thank you in advance
Thanks for your comment, and for your interest in hemp! I suggest you contact our sister company, HempFlax, as they may be able to help you. Another place to try (depending on your location) would be the European International Hemp Association. Good luck!
With best wishes,
I simly couldn’t depart your website before suggesting that I really loved the standard information an individual provide on your guests?
Is gonna be back continuously to inspect nnew posts
Highly descriptive blog, I loved that a lot. Willl
thhere be a part 2?
Thanks for your comment and positive feedback! It’s possible that there will be a Part 2 to this article, if there is enough interest and if there are further breakthroughs in the field of hemp textiles.
With best wishes,
Global Hemp Yarn market size will increase to Million US$ by 2025, from Million US$ in 2017, at a CAGR of during the forecast period. In this study, 2017 has been considered as the base year and 2018 to 2025 as the forecast period to estimate the market size for Hemp Yarn.
This report researches the worldwide Hemp Yarn market size (value, capacity, production and consumption) in key regions like North America, Europe, Asia Pacific (China, Japan) and other regions.
This study categorizes the global Hemp Yarn breakdown data by manufacturers, region, type and application, also analyzes the market status, market share, growth rate, future trends, market drivers, opportunities and challenges, risks and entry barriers, sales channels, distributors and Porter’s Five Forces Analysis.
I’m trying to learn about cannabis products. I definitely believe in things made form hemp
I am doing a project related to the hemp yarn so Can you please elaborate what are the changes required in a ring spinning system to manufacture a hemp yarn.
Thank you for your comment. Unfortunately I do not have the answer to this question, but my colleagues at HempFlax and the Hash Marihuana & Hemp Museum might be able to help you if you email them. Sorry I can’t help you further! Good luck with your project,
With best wishes,
I’m 16 and I’m from Italy and I’m attending a agricultural school. I’m really interested in the cultivation of both hemp and cannabis and I want to start a project in Burkina Faso, Africa with my stepfather who already lives and works there. We wanted to try to start cultivating hemp for textiles and If it’s possible, when I’m older, to cultivate cannabis for medical use.
I’m writing this comment to ask you which equipment is needed to produce the fiber and where can i buy it.
P.s. I can use up to a maximum of one hectare of land for the cultivation.
Thanks for your comment, it’s great to hear from someone so enthusiastic and determined! Unfortunately I don’t know the answer to this question, but if you get in touch with our industrial hemp sister company HempFlax, they should be able to help you. Please let us know how you get on, your project sounds brilliant and I wish you every success with it!
With best wishes,
I am doing a research on the process of turning hemp into fiber. What chemicals are used in this process. Other sources suggest chemicals such as NaOH. So far this is what I have. Is there a website that provides information of a step by step process of turning hemp into fiber for clothing.
Thanks for your comment. I recommend that you contact our sister company HempFlax, who produce various grades of hemp fibre and should be able to provide you with further information. Good luck with your research!
with best wishes,
Hi, I am writing from Pakistan. In the place I live, there is abundant and wild growth of hemp plant. I am not sure if it is the same variety that can be used for making natural fibres or any other useful material. Is there a way to find out if this wild plant can be of use?
Thank you for your comment. I think that it is impossible to say for sure, but if it is growing wild, the females have almost certainly been pollinated by the males so they will be concentrating on producing seeds rather than bud. The seeds are a great source of nutrition. If they are growing very tall, then the stems might be useable for fibres. This post, which covers the basic differences between cannabis and hemp and contains many links to more detailed information, might be useful to you.
With best wishes,
hello, I’m very happy to saw this information, it’s very useful to me. Thank you for sharing this article.
I’d like to learn more…
I am a farmer of organic veggies and we want to start growing Hemp for clothing. We live in BC and want to know what’s the best way to go about this. How much land do you need to grow? How many bales would we need in order to produce clothes? Would we grow the hemp, bale it and ship it to China for spinning into clothes? Or, alternatively, we would prefer to have a sustainable product that is made in BC however I’m sure costs are very high. After the Hemp is cut down, what is the growers responsibility to get it to the next step? (would we need all the other equipment to turn it into yarn or would we send the Hemp bales somewhere else?). I know my questions are all over the map but we aren’t sure where to start! Any info you can provide would be awesome! Thanks 🙂
Thanks for your comment, for sharing your excellent plans, and for all your questions! I’m afraid that I cannot answer most of them as we are a Dutch company so we don’t have direct experience of Canadian or Chinese hemp industries. I do recommend that you contact HempFlax, our sister company, who may be able to give you information about the size of land, amount of bales, etc. I also recommend getting in touch with the International Hemp Association, and the National Hemp Association, who can hopefully give you advice and maybe even practical help.
I hope this is useful to you, and please do check back and let us know how you get on!
With best wishes,
I’m from an Austrian university and we are looking for hemp and other natural fiber textiles. We want them for technical use (resin infusion process). Do you know companies where i can buy good quality textiles for technical use in a quantity of 1000kg+? Best i found so far is Cavvas from romania.
Thanks for your comment 🙂 please check out HempFlax, our industrial hemp producing sister company, for information about ordering hemp fibre. HempFlax has set the European standard for technical grade hemp fibre and can supply large amounts.
With best wishes,
So my question is this:
Is it possible to use indica plants for fabric production?
We farm medical marijuana (high cbd low thc) and I was wondering if it’s possible to use the byproduct of the plants for making stuff like paper or fabrics. Seems such a shame to throw away all the stems and leaves if they could be used to make something.
Thank you for your comment. In theory, it is indeed possible to use the stems for making textiles and paper. However, one of the big differences between industrial hemp and indica strains is the length of the stems. The reason that hemp is such a strong textile is that the bast fibres are very long, since the plants grow very tall (anything from three to fifteen feet), so bast fibres from indica plants will be shorter, depending on the final size of the plant. The inner core of the stems is the cellulose-rich woody hurds, which can be used to make paper.
I would recommend you have a look at the website of our sister company HempFlax for further information and ideas on what hemp can be used for. If you decide to experiment with the leftover parts of your plants, please let me know – I am really interested in hearing how it works out!
With best wishes,
hello, i would like to ask you what is your name? because i am writing MA thesis about textile production and i would like to quoute you. thanks jana
Thank you for your comment. This article was written by our expert author Seshata Sensi, you can find her details (and other posts that she has written) here. I will pass your comment on to her. Good luck with your thesis!
With best wishes,
This is a really cool article. There needs to be more education about hemp textiles. This is a great resource!
I WOULD LIKE TO KNOW WHERE I CAN BUY HEMP GARMENTS & OTHER STUFF TO SELL IN PARIS AND WHAT ABTE THE LEGISLATION
Hemp garments and food stuffs containing no THC are legal in France so you should have no problem in selling them.
There are many manufacturers of hemp clothing, foods, and cosmetics for you to encounter online.
All the best!
Please contact me concerning garments from hemp.
Please provide me with the same information requested by Habib. I am a fashion designer and wish to use hemp cloth in my designs. I am located in the southwestern part of the US so contacts on or near the west coast would be best for me.
I advise you to have a look at the website of the Hemp Industries Association for potential help, advice and contact details for companies who may be able to help you with hemp textiles. Good luck in your endeavours!
With best wishes,
Thank you for the article. Great item – hemp fabric ! I’ve been using EnviroTextiles fabrics for three years – very happy ! Currently creating a new collection . Hemp Hemp Hooray !
We are decorticating hemp in N.C. And trying to figure out best way of degumming.