Cannabis in Australia – Laws, Use, and History

The Australian flag and cannabis plants

It’s illegal to use, buy or sell cannabis in Australia, though the penalties for these acts differs from state to state. Medicinal cannabis is available, but can be difficult for patients to obtain, though Australia’s industrial hemp market is currently thriving. As for decriminalisation of recreational use? It may be a possibility in the future.

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    • Canberra
    • Population
    • 26,857,000
    • CBD Products
    • Legal
    • Recreational cannabis
    • Illegal
    • Medicinal cannabis
    • Legal since 2016

Cannabis laws in Australia

Can you possess and use cannabis in Australia?

It’s illegal to use or possess cannabis in Australia. However, the laws governing cannabis use vary, depending on the state.

For example, throughout most Australian states there are ‘Cannabis Cautioning’ Programmes in place. These programmes tend to be policy-based, which means they focus on treatment and drug avoidance, rather than punishment.

In New South Wales, The Cannabis Cautioning Scheme has been in place since April, 2000, and is operated by NSW Police Force. It was developed in response to a NSW Drug Summit finding that often arresting people for minor drug offences is not always an effective response.

The scheme provides formal cautioning for adult offenders convicted for minor cannabis offences (15 grams or less), and uses police intervention to help seek treatment, and support.

The scheme does not apply to those caught supplying cannabis, and police are still able to formally charge offenders. Drug dealers continue to be arrested and prosecuted under the Drug Misuse and Trafficking Act 1985.

If caught with up to 25 grams of cannabis, the offender is fined A$100 or required to attend a Drug Diversion Programme. However, pressure is building for the laws to be changed, with prominent figures such as MP Rose Jackson calling for it to be decriminalised in the state. . It’s believed that this may inspire Australia’s other states to follow suit in the future.

Until recently in the Australian Capital Territory, the Simple Cannabis Offence Notice (SCON) made possession of up to 25 grams, or two plants punishable with a fine of A$200. On 31 January, 2020, new rules around the personal use of cannabis changed. It is now legal to possess up to 50 grams of dried cannabis, or up to 150 grams of fresh cannabis. Grow up to two cannabis plants per person, with a maximum of four plants per household and consume cannabis in your home for personal use.

Throughout Victoria, the Cannabis Cautioning Program provides a cautioning notice for minor cannabis offences, to offenders aged 17 years and over. The offender must only be in possession of a small (non-trafficable) amount of cannabis, admit to the offence and consent to being cautioned.

A person can accumulate only two cautions, and a voluntary cannabis education program is available to accompany the caution.

In Western Australia, it is illegal to possess, cultivate or supply cannabis. However, Under the Cannabis Intervention Requirement (CIR) scheme, police may issue a CIR notice to anyone aged 14 years and over, found in possession of small amounts of cannabis, and possession of smoking paraphernalia

If caught with 10 grams or less, the offender must attend a one-to-one intervention counselling session. Larger amounts could result in an A$2,000 fine, two years in prison, or both.

Across Queensland, possession of cannabis can be punished with up to 15 years in prison. However, sentences for minor amounts are rare, and if the amount is under 50 grams, the offender must be offered a drug diversion programme. The diversion includes a mandatory assessment and brief intervention program.

Although, there are no Cannabis Cautioning Programmes available in the Northern Territory, laws are quite relaxed. If caught with up to 50 grams of cannabis, one gram of cannabis oil, 10 grams of cannabis resin or cannabis seeds, the offender may be fined A$200.

In South Australia, recreational cannabis is illegal. However, there are no official charges for possessing small amounts, but usually, if caught with up to 25 grams, a fine of A$125 is given. This rises to A$300 if the quantity of cannabis is between 25 and 100 grams. Some are campaigning to raise cannabis’s status to ‘other controlled drugs’, which would increase the fine to A$2,000 or up to three years in prison.

In some cases, the police are able to use their discretion. For example, in Tasmania, the Court Mandated Drug Diversion Program (CMD), can allow up to three incidents of possession of up to 50 grams of cannabis to pass without penalty. There is however, a hierarchy of intervention, and treatment with each subsequent caution.

Can you sell cannabis in Australia?

The sale and supply of cannabis is illegal across Australia. However, as with possession and use, regulations differ, depending on the territory the offender is in.

For example, in Victoria, the penalty is dependent on how much cannabis the offender is caught with. This is defined as:

  • A small quantity (up to 50 grams, regarded as being for personal use)
  • A trafficable quantity (250 grams or over, or 10 plants)
  • A commercial quantity (25 kilograms or over, or 100 plants)
  • A large commercial quantity (250 kilograms or more, or 1,000 plants)

If the court decides that the offender intended to traffic the cannabis, the penalties are:

  • 15 years in prison, a fine of up to 1,800 penalty units or both
  • And for commercial quantities, 25 years in prison, a fine of up to 3,000 penalty units, or both

In cases where the individual is under 18, the sentence is limited to 20 years in prison, and/or a fine of up to 2,400 penalty units.

However, in Queensland, the law operates differently. There are two drugs classifications, ‘sch 1’ or ‘sch 2’ drugs. Cannabis is ‘sch 2’. This means that, if caught supplying cannabis to others (even a small amount), the offender can be given up to 15 years in prison. This is increased to 20 years if they gave the cannabis to a minor, or to someone who was educationally or intellectually impaired.

Trafficking is regarded as an even more serious offence, and is punishable with 20 years in prison.

To use a further example, in the Northern Territory, prison sentences are in place for those who supply cannabis. These rise to as much as 25 years imprisonment if the offender sells the drug to a minor.

Can you grow cannabis in Australia?

It’s illegal to cultivate cannabis in Australia; but as with possession and sale, the laws differ from state to state.

In New South Wales, penalties for growing cannabis are decided based on the number of plants, not their size or gender. This means that, even if the offender’s plants are only seedlings, this is regarded as the same as a full-sized plant. There are higher penalties for those who cultivate a ‘commercial quantity’ of cannabis.

Whereas in Tasmania, the law is quite different. The possession of any ‘controlled plants’ can earn the offender up to two years in prison, and if they have 20 plants or more, this is regarded as being cultivation with intent to sell. In this instance, the penalties are likely to be higher.

Cannabis plants covered in netting growing inside

Is CBD legal in Australia?

Previously, CBD products were only available for medicinal purposes via prescription. According to patient reports, it could only be accessed with a government-approved licence. In order to obtain a licence, patients completed an application under the Special Access Scheme. However, there was no guarantee of approval, and the licence cost $300 a year.

In 2020, the Therapeutic Goods Association announced plans to change the Poisons Standard for cannabidiol. This would mean that medicinal cannabidiol products could be obtained over the counter at a pharmacy, rather than via prescription. Patients would only be able to access a 30-day supply, and the product would be consumed, rather than smoked.

Earlier in 2021, cannabidiol products were downgraded from Schedule 4 to Schedule 3 by the Therapeutic Goods Administration. The decision allowed TGAapproved CBD products, with up to a maximum of 150 mg per day, to be purchased by adults, over-the-counter with a prescription.

Dr. Ben Jansen, the Founder and clinical director of CDA Clinics, said to Australia’s leading news publication, (“”), “The shift to over-the-counter is a huge stepping stone in reducing stigma and encouraging wider societal acceptance around medical cannabis”. With patient numbers rapidly increasing over the last two years, there is definitely more support for cannabis products. 

The chemical formula of CBD and a cannabis plant

Can cannabis seeds be sent to Australia?

At present, only patients with a valid prescription are able to purchase and use medicinal cannabis. All cannabis must meet the requirements of the Therapeutic Goods Act too, and can only be legally obtained by a medical practitioner. As such, mailing the seeds into the country is illegal.

Medicinal cannabis in Australia

Medicinal cannabis was made legal in 2016, under the proviso that the market would be regulated by the Federal Government Office of Drug Control. In 2017, the prescription of cannabis-based medicinal products was legalised, and a list of authorised uses for the drugs was created.

A stethoscope and an orange tube full of cannabis

However, as always, there are also the state laws, which differ from area to area. Here’s a quick run-through:


Medicinal cannabis was legalised in Victoria in 2017, but only for children with severe epilepsy that failed to respond to other treatments.

South Australia

Medicinal cannabis is available on prescription for patients with certain listed symptoms. This law was passed in 2016.

Australian Capital Territory

In 2016, ACT made it legal for medicinal cannabis to be used to treat patients with certain conditions, such as spasticity in MS, nausea and vomiting relating to cancer chemotherapy, or pain / anxiety for those with a terminal illness. Medical practitioners also have the right to apply through the health authority for an ‘Approval by Drug’, enabling them to prescribe medicinal cannabis for other patients too.

New South Wales

In 2016, the NSW Poisons and Therapeutic Goods Amendment Regulation made medicinal cannabis legal for adults with terminal illnesses.


Queensland’s Public Health (Medical Cannabis) Act in 2016 permitted cannabis to be used by patients with a range of conditions such as epilepsy, cancer, MS and HIV/AIDS.

Northern Territory

Access to medicinal cannabis products in the Northern Territory is restricted to patients with specific conditions such as epilepsy, MS, chronic pain, chemotherapy-induced sickness and nausea, and palliative care.


Tasmania permits patients to have unregistered access to medicinal cannabis products. However, this confusing system meant that most medical specialists have yet to apply for it, so in reality, access to the drugs is limited.

Western Australia

Medicinal cannabis was made legal in 2016 for specific health conditions.

The medicinal cannabis market

Australia’s government are keen to capitalise on their domestic cannabis market. In February, 2018, the export of medicinal cannabis products was legalized due to a change in regulations, under the Narcotic Drugs Amendment Act.

Since mid-2020, there have been 113 Cannabis Cultivation and Production Licences issued under the scheme (37 medicinal cannabis licenses for commercial cultivation, 11 licenses for cannabis research, 36 cannabis manufacture licenses and 29 licenses for importation). In August, 2021, only 44 license holders remain visible on the Australian Government Department of Health’s website.

Industry figures praised the decision, overwhelmed by the rapid growth of the industry, Freshleaf’s Managing Director, Cassandra Hunt, commented on their website: “The Australian medicinal cannabis market continues its strong growth trajectory, with revenue expected to more than double in 2021 from around $100 million last year. There’s good news for patients, too, with the price of medicine continuing to fall.”

With increasing demand keeping prices low, and new products are flooding the cannabis market – it’s looking very promising for the medicinal consumer. 

Industrial hemp in Australia

It’s legal to grow industrial hemp in every state of Australia. Tasmania was the first to legalise it in 1995, followed by Victoria in 1998 and Queensland in 2002. Western Australia followed suit in 2004, by introducing an Industrial Hemp Act, which enabled licensees to cultivate it on a commercial scale.

New South Wales created their Hemp Industry Act in 2008, while Southern Australia didn’t pass their Industrial Hemp Act until 2017.

In November 2017, the Food Standards Code was amended, permitting the sale of low THC hemp seed as a food product. The next year, the Western Australian Hemp Growers’ Co-Operative was established; highlighting the industry’s growth.

According to government data, this growth looks like an ongoing trend. The industry is set to be worth A$3million annually by 2023, and farmers across the country are positive about the future.

Research scientist Mark Skewes spoke to ABC News about the performance of the hemp plantations in South Australia so far, saying: “In terms of being able to grow hemp and produce good yields of quality seed, that’s all looking promising. Hemp will grow very successfully here.”

Cannabis plants

Political parties and cannabis

There’s a lot of support in Australia for decriminalising cannabis for recreational use. For example, in Australian Capital Territory, parliament are debating the issue, which was put forward by Labour backbencher Michael Pettersson.

However, the suggestion has met with opposition, with other politicians commenting on the constitutional obstacles. If passed, the state law would contradict the Commonwealth law, which raises a lot of problems.

In Queensland, politicians like Larissa Waters (a senator for the Green Party) said it was “high time” for Australia to legalise cannabis. “One in three Australians have used it, and the vast majority of Australians think it shouldn’t be a crime to do so,” she commented to

Good to know

If you are travelling to Australia (or currently live there), you may be interested to know the following:

  • Cannabis is the most commonly used illegal substance among young people in the country, with 16% of students aged between 12 and 17 having used it.
  • According to UNODC data, Australia ranks 9th in the world in terms of number of people who use cannabis.
  • Even the government’s own website acknowledges the prevalence of cannabis use in the country, stating that it is “relatively easy to obtain”.

Cannabis history

It’s believed that hemp was first introduced to Australia at the request of Sir Joseph Banks, the botanist who sailed with Captain James Cook. He’d hoped that the hemp would be cultivated commercially for the new colony situated in the country.      

After this time, Australia’s early governments actively encouraged the cultivation of the plant, and cannabis was widely used across the country, both for recreational and medicinal purposes.

As with many other parts of the world, Australia started to change its attitudes to cannabis in the 1920s. They signed the 1925 Geneva Convention on Opium and Other Drugs, which restricted the use of the plant to medicinal and research purposes only. It was also placed in the same category as cocaine and heroin. Pressure from the UK encouraged Australia’s government to implement local laws to eradicate cannabis use.

In the 1930s, a ‘shock campaign’ was used to dissuade cannabis users further, with the publication Smith’s Weekly claiming that it was a “new drug that maddens victims”. This campaign also suggested that it was an “evil sex drug” and the “biggest gateway drug”.

Despite this, cannabis continued to be used, and in the 1960s, its popularity increased. ‘Hippy culture’ embraced the psychedelic effects of the plant, which led to greater eradication efforts from the government.

Cultural attitudes

Cannabis is widely used across the country, and as such, attitudes are mostly positive regarding it.

For example, a 2018 poll found that the majority of Tasmanians were in favour of making its usage legal, with 59% claiming that it should be decriminalised. This tallies with what’s already known about public opinion. In 2016, the National Drug Strategy Household Survey also found that most people supported decriminalisation.

Some Australians are so passionate about decriminalising cannabis use that they attend the Marijuana Mardi Gras, which is held each May in Nimbin, near Brisbane. Sensi Seeds’ very own Charly Bedrossain spoke at this event in 2019! The Nimbin area is often referred to as the ‘rainbow region’, as it’s famous for its counterculture attitude.

The Mardi Gras festival includes a protest rally and parade (with the Ganja fairies), and the Hemp Olympix, which includes lots of cannabis-themed events.

Using cannabis to tackle alcoholism

Alcohol plays a significant role in Australian culture. As such, alcoholism is an issue for the country, with 17.4% of adults over 18 drinking more than the recommended two standard drinks per day.

One alarming study conducted in 2009 found that 42% of young adults aged 16 to 24 had consumed 20 or more alcoholic drinks in a day, in the last year alone. Among the 15% who admitted to doing it at least once a month, 40% had injured themselves, 28% had created a public nuisance or disturbance, 13% had been violent towards someone, and 19% had damaged property.

Professor Robin Room highlighted the fact that problems caused by alcohol abuse are far more common than with cannabis. As a legal stimulant, alcohol is easy to obtain, which means high numbers of young people try it. Room put forward a suggestion of making decriminalising cannabis to give them an alternative, and perhaps less damaging option.

Will it be legalised in the future?

Given that other countries such as Portugal and South Africa have decriminalised cannabis (with Canada legalising it), it seems likely that Australia may follow the same path. It already has relatively progressive views regarding the use of medicinal cannabis and industrial hemp – so it’s probable that it’s only a matter of time.

  • Disclaimer:
    While every effort has been made to ensure the accuracy of this article, it is not intended to provide legal advice, as individual situations will differ and should be discussed with an expert and/or lawyer.


13 thoughts on “Cannabis in Australia – Laws, Use, and History”

  1. Would love to buy your 10% oil at half the local prescription price but hopefully it will eventually make it onto the PBS before I cark it as it really helps with Fibromyalgia pain

    1. Mark Smith - Sensi Seeds

      Good afternoon Bob,

      Thanks for your support from down-under 🙂
      I’m glad CBD oil helps with fibromyalgia pain!
      Hopefully, with more advancements into medicinal cannabis, I can hope CBD oil will make it on the Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme!

      Thanks again, and have a great day!


  2. Sorry, I missed the small paragraph regarding importing seeds into Australia.
    Have been smoking high quality cannabis and hashish for 50 years, but because everybody here tries and does grow sinsimila with few or no seeds. If you can track down any seeds at all, they tend to produce low quality with 70% or more male plants. These seeds are usually from plants called “bush” (says it all really) from growers who don’t know or care about quality marijuana, it is a real lucky dip.
    Very frustrating to say the least!!!!

    1. Mark - Sensi Seeds

      Hey Robert,

      Thanks for your comment,
      That’s a shame that there is limited access to high quality genetics down under.
      I hope you can find and preserve some good genetics soon – apologies again for not shipping to Australia!

      Best of luck,


  3. Nobody answered the question about whether cannabis seeds can be imported from Sensi or others into Australia.
    I do not want to spend $30- per seed for customs to seize them at the airport.
    Please someone answer the question?

    1. Mark - Sensi Seeds

      Good morning Robert,

      Thanks for your comment!
      Unfortunately, we are very sorry to inform you that legal restrictions still prevent shipping parties from sending seeds or CBD products to countries located outside of the European Union, regardless of local changes in regulation. Of course we’ll keep monitoring these restrictions and we’ll amend our policies immediately in the event of a change.

      Thanks again and I hope you continue to enjoy the blog.

      With best wishes,


  4. I am not an Ostrich !!

    The situation regarding access to medical cannabis in Australia is a sad joke ! At this stage, in a country of 25 million citizens, I believe there are less than 10 doctors willing / able to prescribe cannabis. On top of this, the parameters for who qualifies for treatment are incredibly limited. Basically, unless you are a left handed unicorn with one blue eye and one green eye, and your name is Gertrude, you will not get access. Further, unless you are a corporation willing to spend millions of dollars, you will not get a license to grow it as an individual for personal consumption …. all this from a government that proclaimed that it wanted Australia to become “the worlds largest exporter” of medical cannabis !! Oh the hypocrisy !! The winner with the current situation is (still) the unregulated and nefarious black market !! Due to this situation, one could almost say that the government is the drug pushers biggest ally. Sadly, people are dying before getting access to medical grade cannabis, being hopelessly addicted to Opioids, but not being able to have a couple of puffs of a natural plant product. However, this is OK with the Australian government !!! So I say to my government – pull your heads out of the sand and realise the billions of dollars in revenue that you are missing out on, the same billions now ending up in the black market economy and funding who knows what. The sky has not fallen in, in countries where access to cannabis has been granted !!! How about letting adults make adult decisions for themselves ? Peace and love to the world.

  5. It must be noted though that despite cultivating medicinal cannabis having been made legal in all Australian states, use of medicinal cannabis is only legally possible through trials and special access schemes. Cultivation of narcotic plants also remains a very serious criminal offence with life imprisonment as a maximum penalty in some cases (

  6. All this has to be a step in the right direction for the rest of the country. It would be great if the other states had rules like South Australia at some time.

  7. Warren Elliott

    11/105 Port Stephens Drive
    Salamander Bay NSW 2317

    To whom it may concern

    My name Warren Elliott 57 I’m on the Disabled single pension, I used to take several fits. I can only use one arm to do things which gives me pain all the time. My friend wrote this because I can’t spell very much so I dictated what I say I have right side Hemiplegia which is my right side is much weaker than the other side threw a car accident 35 years which left my Brain damage, got arthritis threw out my body, scoliosis in my back, had 22 operation’s and more to came. plus Just had a spinal decompression of the back found a hole in the lining of the spinal canal then my lung collapsed then got a bleed on the brain I take pain killers (OxyContin and Endone) I don’t like taking them there very addictive. I smoke which helps much more, when I can get it, afford it. it would be much appreciated if you could help me get Medical Marijuana or Cannabis I’m finding it very expensive can I go on MEDICAL trail

    1. Dear Warren!

      We are very sorry to hear about your story. We are always happy to hear if cannabis can help with a certain disease, but we are also always sad to hear if someone cannot have access to medicinal cannabis. Unfortunately we cannot help you because although Sensi Seeds is selling seeds of (medicinal) cannabis strains, we do not supply cannabis.

      We have learned from the news that Australia is slowly changing its mind on medicinal cannabis: hopefully you have access to it very soon!

      All the best!

  8. Howdy! Do you know if they make any plugins to safeguard against hackers?
    I’m kinda paranoid about losing everything I’ve worked hard on.

    Any tips?

  9. Its about time! i am sick of the police taking my hydro gear ! Never been charged 😉 just have to have a good medical reason and its up to the ranking officer if they want to charge you or not they will take your hydroponic gear tho. FYI dont grow over 10 plants 1ft or high 5 plants 2ft or high 3 plants 3ft and a lot of the time they will just see it as personal (DO NOT have scales in your house or baggies) if you go over these numbers its harder for them to turn the blind eye.

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    Sensi Seeds

    The Sensi Seeds Editorial team has been built throughout our more than 30 years of existence. Our writers and editors include botanists, medical and legal experts as well as renown activists the world over including Lester Grinspoon, Micha Knodt, Robert Connell Clarke, Maurice Veldman, Sebastian Maríncolo, James Burton and Seshata.
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    Maurice Veldman

    Maurice Veldman is a member of the Dutch Association of Criminal Lawyers and one of the Netherlands’ most notable cannabis lawyers. With 25 years’ experience in the field, his knowledge of criminal and administrative law supports cannabis sellers and hemp producers by addressing the inequalities between the individual and the state.
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