Cannabis in Belgium – Laws, Use, and History

The Belgian flag and a person holding a cannabis plant in their hands

It is illegal to sell or possess cannabis in Belgium. However, in 2003, limited personal use of cannabis was decriminalised. This only applies to amounts of 3g or less and is on the condition that the user is not being a public nuisance. Medical use of cannabis is legal but is limited to the use of one product – Sativex oral spray for multiple sclerosis.

    • Capital
    • Bruxelles-Brussel
    • Population
    • 11,819,000
    • CBD Products
    • Illegal
    • Recreational cannabis
    • Illegal
    • Medicinal cannabis
    • Legal since 2015

Cannabis laws in Belgium

Can you possess and use cannabis in Belgium?

It is still technically illegal to possess cannabis in Belgium. The exception to the rule is personal use. The 2003 directive ruled that personal possession of cannabis was less serious than other forms of drug use. It was no longer regarded as a prosecutable offence, unless there was evidence of the cannabis use being problematic or causing a public nuisance.

In 2005, the Constitutional Court issued a new directive to more clearly define the terms of this law. Users could now be persecuted for possessing amounts of cannabis that were 3g or higher (or more than one plant).

Using cannabis near schools or other public areas was also made into a punishable offence. Individuals could face three months to one year in prison, and / or a fine (EUR 8,000 to EUR 800,000). Fines are increased for repeat offenders (within a year of the previous offence).

Some politicians and the media have highlighted the confusing nature of the law. For example, the City of Antwerp introduced a ‘zero tolerance’ policy in 2014, which gave police the power to issue on-the-spot fines (of EUR 75) to users caught with any amount of cannabis. This directly contradicted the Belgium government’s official stance.

Cannabis on a Belgian waffle

Can you sell cannabis in Belgium?

It is illegal to sell cannabis in Belgium, and an individual caught selling it may face a fine or a prison sentence. Again, the law is complex on this issue. The 1998 directive suggested that those selling cannabis to finance their own addiction should be given a reduced prison sentence or fine. Then, a new law was introduced in 2003, categorising the sale of cannabis:

  • Category 1 – import, possession and cultivation of cannabis for personal use
  • Category 2 – 1st category offences committed with aggravating circumstances
  • Category 3 – all other offences (including substances that aren’t cannabis)

Can you grow cannabis in Belgium?

The current law states that it is legal to grow one plant in your own home. A report from 2015 found that cannabis cultivation was ‘endemic’ in Belgium, with many people choosing to grow it. While this may be the case, it is important to remember that it is still a ‘grey area’ and growing more than one plant is illegal.

Is CBD legal in Belgium?

The law does not permit the sale or purchase of CBD oil in Belgium. Products containing THC (the psychoactive substance responsible for the ‘high’) are illegal. In fact, any ‘foodstuffs’ that list cannabis as an ingredient, even if the levels of THC are below 0.2%, are illegal. Despite this, some CBD oil manufacturers supply within the country.

The Federal Agency for the Safety of the Food Chain states: “Cannabis sativa L. is included in List 1 “Dangerous plants which cannot be used as or in foodstuffs” annexed to the Royal Decree of 29 August 1997 on the manufacture of and trade in foodstuffs composed of or containing plants or plant preparations. These provisions also apply to hemp with a THC content of 0.2% or less…”

The chemical formula of CBD and a cannabis plant

Can cannabis seeds be sent to Belgium?

The purchase of cannabis seeds in Belgium is legal, and the law has decriminalised growing one female cannabis plant at home. You are not permitted to grow more than one plant, nor can you use the seeds as food, in accordance with the laws outlined by the Federal Agency for the Safety of the Food Chain.

Medicinal cannabis in Belgium

In 2015, the public health minister for Belgium (Maggie De Block) signed a royal decree to legalise the sale of medicinal cannabis. At the time, the decision was praised for its progressiveness, though only one product is eligible under the law. This is an oral spray for MS patients, called Sativex.

Some associations in Belgium have called for greater access to medical cannabis-based products. They claim that the current law excludes many patients whose symptoms could be eased by being able to use cannabis medically. A few organisations have even come together to offer patients a greater array of cannabis-based pain-relief options – but they are not technically operating within the law. 

Industrial hemp in Belgium

In accordance with EU Regulation 1307 / 2013, Belgian law allows the growth of hemp for industrial purposes. This can be used to create a variety of things, from paper and textiles, to construction material and biodegradable plastic. The hemp industry in Belgium is undergoing a revival at present and many businesses are thriving as a result.

Hemp plants growing in a field

Belgium’s political parties and cannabis

The Belgian government has come under fire for its cannabis policies, which some see as too liberal. Experts have pointed out that numbers of cannabis users have risen (though numbers of young users have stagnated). There has also been a rise in ‘cannabis abuse’ referrals to psychiatric or rehabilitation centres.

Others call to legalise the drug. Professor Paul De Grauwe (KU Leuven) comments: “If it’s illegal, it’s profitable. That’s the paradox of a repressive policy. As the profit margin increases, so does supply. Criminals end up in a resource race with law enforcement, and usually the criminals win because the government simply doesn’t have the budget to compete.”

Good to know

If you are travelling to Belgium (or are a resident of the country), it is useful to know the following:

  • Cannabis is the most commonly seized drug in Belgium. This is despite its semi-decriminalised status for personal use. Numbers of plantations uncovered by the police are also on the rise.
  • Number of young cannabis users in the country remains high. The most recent figures suggest that one in six 15 to 16-year olds in the Flemish community and one in five in the French community have used cannabis in the past.
  • Cannabis was also found to be the most popular drug among 15 to 34-year-olds, with 10.1% using the substance.
  • Despite the prevalence of its use in Belgium, it is important to remember that it is still illegal to possess and sell.

Attitudes to cannabis

High numbers of Belgian people have tried cannabis, which demonstrates the popularity of the drug. However, unlike its neighbouring country the Netherlands, cannabis cannot legally be purchased in a coffeeshop. The government is more lenient on those who use cannabis in the privacy of their own homes – but those who use it in near schools for example, risk prosecution. 

Cannabis history

Hundreds of years ago, acres of land in Belgium were used to grow hemp. The seed from this plant was used as a grain for making food, and the husks were useful for manufacturing rope, canvas, clothes, shoes and material for sails.

In the twentieth century, the country’s attitude to cannabis underwent a noticeable shift. The supposed negatives of cannabis use were being publicised more widely, particularly in countries like the USA. Gradually, the hemp plantations vanished, even though many of the plants contained a low percentage of THC.

The 1960s counter-culture saw a rise in the use of cannabis in Belgium, and it became associated with the artistic community. Although the Belgian government initially adopted a repressive stance, the use of the drug has become widespread in recent years.

What medical cannabis products are available in Belgium?

At present, there is only one cannabis-based medical product available. This is Sativex, an oral spray used to alleviate the symptoms of multiple sclerosis patients.

What is Belgian cannabis like?

The potency of both hash (cannabis resin) and herbal cannabis is generally strong in Belgium. A 2017 report found that hash had an average 31% THC content, and herbal cannabis had 24%.

What are Belgian Cannabis Social Clubs?

Belgium’s cannabis social clubs are privately owned by people that grow cannabis to distribute, but without generating profit from the activity. Belgium is not the first country to have such organisations; Spain’s CSCs provided the inspiration.

People sitting at Belgian cannabis social clubs

Through the social clubs, Belgian cannabis activists can meet their personal needs without resorting to purchasing illegally. Experts recognise the value of these clubs. They have good control over the quality and potency of their product. They also have control over who they supply to. Concerns have been raised about their general instability though, with some questioning the transparency of their operations.

The Belgian drugs market

In the 1950s and 1960s, most cannabis in Belgium was imported from countries such as India, Nepal, Pakistan and Afghanistan. This has changed in recent years, with imports decreasing and quantities of ‘homegrown’ cannabis rising steadily. This matches the general worldwide trend.

Is Belgium likely to decriminalise its use?

Pressure is on for the government to introduce a wider range of medical cannabis products. This is to ensure that patients suffering from health conditions other than MS also have the option to use it if desired. As for recreational use? It is difficult to say what the future holds for Belgium. Some call for more relaxed laws. By claiming control of the cannabis market, the government will then have greater powers in terms of regulation and distribution. However, others want the opposite – a more ‘zero tolerance’ approach, even to personal use.

  • Disclaimer:
    While every effort has been made to ensure the accuracy of this article, it is not intended to provide legal advice, as individual situations will differ and should be discussed with an expert and/or lawyer.


21 thoughts on “Cannabis in Belgium – Laws, Use, and History”

  1. Marta Galindo Diaz

    Hi, is it legal that the police enter in may place for noise and take my canabis? Am i not allowed to posses it inside my house?

    1. Scarlet Palmer - Sensi Seeds

      Hi Marta,

      I cannot give you a definite answer because I don’t know all the details, but this article suggests that if the police consider someone is using cannabis and causing a nuisance, they can take action. So if they entered your house because of a noise complaint, they could probably do this. Please do check with a qualified lawyer before taking any action though. We have had our articles checked by a Dutch lawyer and they are updated regularly but they are not a substitute for personal legal advice.

      I hope this is helpful.

      With best wishes,


  2. So in Belgium the growing of one cannabis plant per adult is allowed, but at what conditions? Does it have to be using natural sunlight or is the use of lamps allowed?

    1. Scarlet Palmer - Sensi Seeds

      Hi Austin,

      Unfortunately, I cannot find a definite answer to your question. As different areas in Belgium have the option to make their own rules regarding cannabis, it is even possible that the answer could depend on exactly where in Belgium one is. My advice would be to contact a legal professional in Belgium to be sure of obtaining an accurate answer. Sorry I can’t help you further!

      With best wishes,


    2. As far as i know here in belgium the only condition is indeed 1 plant max. and it has to be female of gender.
      I wouldn’t risk them growing outside in your yard or anything if they can be easily seen by the surrounding area!

      Good luck!

    1. Scarlet Palmer - Sensi Seeds

      Hi there,

      If you are asking about the legality of salvia in Belgium, according to Wikipedia there are “some controls” in place, but I cannot find specifics of what those controls are. I suggest that you consult a legal professional in Belgium to be sure of getting a truly accurate answer; sorry I can’t help you further, and I hope you continue to enjoy the blog.

      With best wishes,


  3. Cristian Viloaica

    So it is legal to smoke and carry small quantities of weed on you? Just moved recently to Belgium and I don’t wanna break the law or get in trouble. Thanks

    1. Scarlet Palmer - Sensi Seeds

      Hi Cristian,

      Thanks for your comment. As legislation changes often, and this article is from 2014, I strongly advise you to check with a lawyer in Belgium as to the current status of cannabis. Additionally, please note the distinction between ‘legal’ and ‘decriminalised’ – cannabis may still be effectively decriminalised in Belgium, but as in the Netherlands, it is not legal.

      With best wishes,


  4. Catarina Ferreira


    I’m looking for medicinal cannabis, for my grandma that suffers from chronic headache/dizziness and pain basically all over the body since she had an AVC.. I really would like to give her something to help.. can anyone tell me where I can find medicinal cannabis? In europe if there’s not in Belgium

  5. ?hi my question is do you know if you grow many plants in belguim indoor would be years in jail or question thank,s peace be hi

    1. Scarlet Palmer - Sensi Seeds

      Hi there,

      I’m afraid I can’t answer that question because it would depend on the individual case and there are too many variables to take a guess. Sorry I can’t be more help.

      With best wishes,


  6. is it illegal to bring, for your own use a small,amount of cannabis eg; 3 cigs. worth.. on a day trip to belgium…

    1. Scarlet Palmer - Sensi Seeds

      Hello King Kong,

      It is legal for Sensi Seeds to ship seeds to Brussels so I advise you to order online directly from us. Also if you sign up for our newsletter, you will receive exclusive discount codes and news about special offers, to make your shopping experience even more special 🙂 simply enter your email address in the ‘subscribe’ box at the bottom right of the page.

      Best wishes,


  7. Mary Jane Rose

    I live almost all my live in Belgium and i now that medicinal use of cannabs is never being allowed . and as i now we only have 2 social clubs ..Trek uw plant in Antwerp en The mambo social club in Hasselt thats it ..I wish we had 5 . Thanks to get Belgium on the map.Grtz.

  8. Progressive_thinker

    Great job, you’ve officially set your country back 30 years. Hope your bribes were worth it, childish politician.

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    Sensi Seeds

    The Sensi Seeds Editorial team has been built throughout our more than 30 years of existence. Our writers and editors include botanists, medical and legal experts as well as renown activists the world over including Lester Grinspoon, Micha Knodt, Robert Connell Clarke, Maurice Veldman, Sebastian Maríncolo, James Burton and Seshata.
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    Maurice Veldman

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